Response to Resistance Instructors


Sam Faulkner

Mr. Samuel Faulkner has been a Certified Police Officer since 1983, having served as a Law Enforcement & Corrections Training Specialist for the Ohio Peace Officer Training Academy (OPOTA), a section of the of Ohio Attorney General’s Office from 1987 – 2009. Mr. Faulkner is the former Chief of Police for the Village of Mechanicsburg, Ohio and has served as an expert witness in over 300 national Law Enforcement and Corrections cases involving Response To Resistance, False Arrest, Tactics, Arrest Practices and Procedures. Sam has conducted a series of national research projects to establish "reasonable" response standards for law enforcement and correction officers. He has expanded his program to include research with the U.S. Justice Department, National Institute of Justice, and AFSCME Corrections United. Mr. Faulkner's force model has been adopted throughout Ohio, West Virginia, and countless departments throughout the United States and has been presented to the National Association of Attorney Generals, and at the 2003 CALEA national seminar, and numerous CALEA regional conferences.


Shawn Chitwood

Shawn Chitwood began his martial arts training in 1980 and has since built an impressive career that includes Black Belts in Combat Jujitsu, Gracie Jiujitsu, Judo, Shun Gi Thai Jujitsu, Shotokan Karate, and Tae Kwon Do. Shawn has also won three National Titles and a World Championship as United States team member. 20 years after winning the World Championship, Shawn coached the 2019 United States National Team and led them to another World Championship. Mr. Chitwood has owned a martial arts and fitness gym since 1994 and has been a law enforcement officer since 1995. Shawn has been instrumental in training law enforcement officers, holding key training positions at the Ohio Peace Officer Training Academy and Ohio State Highway Patrol Academy. He was the Director of Training at North Central State College and is the current Direct of Training at Response to Resistance. Shawn's focus is on training law enforcement professionals defensive tactics, subject control, officer survival, and force on force.

Response to Resistance Course Overview

Legal Module


In the Legal Module, Sam delivers lessons on numerous court cases throughout the country that have shaped the standard of objective reasonableness. In addition to these pivotal court cases, Sam discusses his Response to Resistance project and how the research indicates the vast majority of surveyed participants, from both law enforcement and local communities, agree that the subject control action response continuum techniques and the manner in which they are applied are objectively reasonable.


Here is what you will learn in the Legal Module:


How It All Started 

An overview on how perspectives, National focus, and constitutional authority influence Law Enforcement policy

Terry v. Ohio

A key case that upheld an officer’s actions to frisk three suspects under the Fourth Amendment and how it shaped the probable cause triangle

Historical Cases 

Covers a range of historical cases and how their rulings influenced Use of Force policies and procedures

Tennessee v. Garner

Commonly known as the “fleeing felon case”, the Tennessee v. Garner ruling established that a statute authorizing deadly force to prevent the escape of an unarmed fleeing felon was unconstitutional.

Graham v. Connor

The Graham v. Connor case made explicit that all excessive use of force claims should be analyzed under the Fourth Amendment and its reasonableness standard rather than under a substantive due process approach.

Response to Resistance Survey Overview

An introduction and overview of Sam Faulkner’s ongoing research project, the “Response to Resistance” survey. Sam’s research continues to be pivotal in identifying areas of agreement and opening dialogue with law enforcement and their communities on objectively reasonable use of force.

Threat Perception 

This lesson covers another side of Sam’s research related to the perception of threat and its role in court decisions. Like the use of force data from the Response to Resistance Survey, Sam discusses the threat perception similarities identified between law enforcement and the community.

 Case Analysis 

In this lesson, Sam discusses and provides commentary on a recent incident where the response to resistance technique used was apparently inconsistent with the perceived threat.

Response to Resistance Survey Data Analysis 

A deep dive into data obtained from the Response to Resistance Survey. Here you will see how data changed from 2017 to 2020 using survey responses from the Memphis Police Department and the Memphis community.


Subject Control Action Response Continuum (SCARC) Overview


The modules within the Subject Control Action Response Continuum make up the spectrum of subject control techniques. These techniques are color coded with Blue being the least amount of force and then gradually escalating to Green, Yellow, Orange, and Red. Throughout the SCARC modules, Sam and Shawn offer detailed explanations on the use of techniques as well as strategies and approaches for de-escalation and re-escalation of force. Their unique video demonstration methods are easy to understand and practice individually, with a training dummy, and training partner.


SCARC Modules:


Officer Presence, Unbendable Arm, Initial Contact, Balance Displacement, Escort Position (Basic), Escort Position (Handcuffed), and Arm Drag Series


Takedown Techniques, Joint Manipulations, Pressure Points, Striking Motor Points, and Prone Team Tactics


Striking Techniques and Tactical Boxing Combos


Sleeper Holds, Sleeper Hold Application, and Rendering a Subject Unconscious


Deadly Force and Articulatable Defense


Subject Control, Resistance and Aggression Response Techniques


In the remaining modules, Sam and Shawn focus their efforts on presenting techniques to ensure officers can effectively and appropriately respond to varying levels of subject resistance with the primary focus of gaining subject control while maintaining officer safety.

Here are the Advanced Techniques you will learn:


Weapons Retention

Unbendable Arm, Holstered Weapons Retention Techniques, and Out of Holster Weapons Retention Techniques

Downed Officer Ground Fighting

The Four Stages of Standing Up, Feet in Hips, Foot in Hip and Foot in Bicep, Knee Pinch, Leg Throw Guard Recovery, Closed Guard, and Closed Guard Expand to Create Space

Grappling Defensive and Escape Tactics

Mount Escape, Cross Body Escape, Guard Top, Cross Body Top, Knee in Belly, and Mount Top

Submission Counter and Escape

Guillotine Choke, Sleeper Choke, Armbar, Triangle Choke, and Kimura

Survival Against Stabbings, Hitting, & Slashings

Entering the Blade, Five Disarming Options and Sequence, Transition from Disarming Sequence to Lock Down Options, and Moving Blade Defense/Transitioning into Disarming and Lockdown.